Automatic transmission tips and info

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Automatic transmission tips and info

Postby Growlerbearnz » Tue Aug 29, 2017 4:57 pm

L300s use an Aisin Warner AW72L transmission, though Mitsubishi dubbed it the "V4AW2". There's not a lot of information around about rebuilding or modifying it when it's on a Mitsubishi, but the same transmission was fitted to many other vehicles. Turns out Volvo owners have a long history of rebuilding, modifying, and tuning this transmission. Check out these links:

Some of the information is Volvo-specific. But a lot of it is applicable to our transmissions.

And just in case they go away, here's the Volvo AW7x FAQ (the first link above, with more pictures). I've removed much of the inapplicable stuff.


Transmission Service Procedures .

Checking the Fluid Level. To check the transmission fluid level:

The engine and transmission must be hot (so drive the car for 20 minutes or so)
The car must be parked on level ground with the handbrake on.
The engine must be on.
Start in P, then cycle through all the gears, ending up in P.
Then check the fluid level at the yellow dipstick. Reinsert the dipstick with the notches toward the rear to avoid jamming it in the tube.

Service Procedures. [Inquiry] I am considering doing the 20k transmission service. What do I need to be aware of?

[Editor] Easy: just unscrew the tranny pan drain bolt, drain, and refill with the same quantity to the correct mark on the dipstick. You will need a funnel with a long, thin neck to fit into the drain tube, and a drain pan. Use a socket on a breaker bar (12 inches or longer) to break free the pan bolt, which may have a little corrosion. Be gentle putting it back.

[Response: Chris Herbst] Volvo no longer recommends dropping the pan and cleaning the screen on the AW70 as a matter of routine maintenance, even though there is a strainer in the transmission. Neither it nor the pan need to be cleaned unless major problems have arisen. This is from a recent Volvo Tech Service Bulletin that dropped the recommendation, still found in most owner's manuals. You do still need to drain and refill the pan regularly, though. [Editor] Many owners highly recommend a fluid flush on a periodic basis, say every 60-80k miles. This removes all residual dirt in the fluid.

Drain Plug. Watch out putting the transmission drain plug back in: recommended torque is only 13-17 ft-lb in this soft pan. . The pan is very soft and I stripped the last one that I did. Also use a new aluminum washer if possible. Bolt size is 10mm by 1.50mm thread pitch.

Fluid Specifications and Drain Intervals. Use Dexron fluid in your AW transmission. The latest Dexron Spec is III-H and it is all backward compatible to the Dexron II or III listed in your owners manual. Even better: buy a synthetic fluid such as Mobil 1. Mobil 1 ATF is a full synthetic meeting Dexron III specs. Castrol Syntec is a Group III hydrocracked fluid meeting Dexron III specs.

(Edit: Dexron VI is supposed be backward-compatible with DexIII, but it has lower viscosity. I've found that shifts are harsher, and the torque converter slips more when using Dexron VI. I've gone back to Dexron III).

Safety While Working on Transmission. [Editor] Note that you can accidentally shift your transmission while working around the linkage beneath. To be safe, don't rely on "park": use jack stands and chocks to hold the car secure.

Any Bands to Adjust? [Inquiry:] I recently acquired a Volvo with an AW-70 in good condition from my brother-in-law. I am planning to flush the ATF and replace the filter in the near future. My friend suggested adjusting the bands while I have pan off. Is this a reasonable thing to do? Does the AW70 even have adjustable bands?

[Response: Abe Crombie] The AW55/70/71/72 and BW55 don't have bands. These gearboxes use friction discs as brakes. Disc brakes don't require (nor is there any way for) adjustment.

7XX Fluid Flush.

[Editor] If your car has sluggish shifting, especially when cold, or you would like to remove all dirt and old fluid from your transmission, consider a complete fluid flush instead of just draining and refilling the pan. "But my mechanic told me if I flush the old, brown fluid, the transmission will fail! He won't touch it."

[Robert Ludwick/Kane Leung] Sadly, you don't have to pass an IQ test to be a mechanic ( i.e. Bubba taught me this way an' that's how ah do it! ) But another reason why shops say this is liability. Brown fluid means the tranny is has suffered wear from neglect. They change the fluid for $50, and say one week later, your tranny dies ... would you blame yourself for not taking care of it sooner, or the shop because they were the last ones to do anything with it? Flush it anyway: it works.

I recently changed the trans. fluid in our '92 940 using the cooler line disconnect technique. Here is the easiest way to do it:

Obtain either IPD's transmission flush hose or a clear vinyl or plastic tube (3/8 inch I.D.) about eight feet long, three or four gallon milk jugs calibrated with a permanent marker in quarts, and a transmission fill funnel with a long, thin neck. Have at least your tranny capacity (approx 9 qts.) in new fluid on hand. 3/8vinyl hose is a tight fit (heat it in water to get it on); 1/2 inch I.D. will require a clamp.
Buy 12 quarts of new fluid. Highly recommended: synthetic such as Mobil 1 Synthetic ATF.
Remove the transmission dipstick with the yellow top and put the tip of the funnel into the filler pipe. Press down firmly on the funnel so that it stays in place. If need be, use some wire to secure the funnel so that it doesn't come out or fall over.
Drain all the oil from the transmission drain pan (2-3.5 qts depending on model) and reinstall the pan bolt. Do not overtighten.
Refill the same amount (2-3.5qts depending on how much you drained out) into the filler tube.
The transmission cooler return line is the top line entering the top fitting at the radiator. Using two wrenches (one as a counterhold wrench so you do not crack the fitting at the top of the radiator), remove this cooler line. Penetrating oil can help loosen threads. Pull back gently on the cooler line to separate it from the radiator. Push the transmission fluid line slightly aside (use a cable tie to hold it, if necessary).
Connect the clear plastic hose to the radiator fitting by pressing it on the thread, lubricating with ATF as needed. Fish it through over or through the grill and into to a gallon milk jug on the ground. The disconnected return line does not need to be plugged.
Turn on the engine. Fluid will start draining out of the tube into the jug. The fluid does not drain out all that fast - ~25 seconds for 2 qts - and stops when you stop the engine.
Watch the fill rate on the side of the marked jug and have a friend refill at the same rate into the filler tube. [Editor's Note: have a friend engage parking brake, apply the main brake, and place the transmission in drive for a minute to flush out other parts of the valve body and torque converter.]
After approximately nine quarts, you will notice fresh fluid flowing out of the hose. Stop here.
Button things up (do not overtighten the cooler line fitting), check final level, check for leaks, etc.
Everything worked very well - the only pitfall was that I ended up overfilling the trans. a bit (~3/4 qt) - I think I must have been a little off every time I estimated I had drained 2 qts. So finally I had to pump all that out of the filler tube while checking the level - a bit of a hassle but not too bad. [Tip: if you overfill, just unscrew the pan bolt slightly and hold it while the fluid drips out to the quantity required. Messy but easy. Or, loosen the cooling line again and pump enough out through that. Or, use a suction pump and a vinyl hose and suck it out the fill tube.]

Flush By Draining the Torque Converter? [Frank] Some Euro indy mechanics have suggested that a better flush is achieved by first draining the torque converter. Not true: this creates a large air gap and forces the tranny to run dry while it refills. The Volvo OEM flush procedure is through the cooler lines as noted above.

A/T Fluid Needs Changing; Late or Poor Shift Quality.

Delayed Transmission Engagement When Shifting into Gear:
[Inquiry:] The drive gear engages late when shifting from P to D in my auto transmission.

[Response: Marc] The problem you describe can be attributed to either a low level of transmission fluid or a stuck valve body. If the fluid is low in the torque converter, it will take additional time to transfer the engine power to the transmission, as the power is transmitted through a fluid by spinning up a plate with fins on one side and the fluid spinning up a secondary plate with fins on the other (thus keeping fast changes in the engine power output from damaging the transmission).

I would recommend that, if you have not recently (within the last 6 months) changed the transmission fluid and transmission filter, you have this done. In my area, the change runs as low as $49.99 US, including parts & labor. If you have the Haynes manual for your car, take it with you if go to anyone other than the dealer, as the fluid may have to be drained in a non-standard way via a transmission fluid cooler return pipe (non-standard compared to other brands of vehicle). This service will also clear up most sticky valve bodies, as the new fluid reliquifies old gummy deposits...[Editor's note: see also Fluid Flush]

Late or Poor Shift Quality While in Gear:
[Symptoms:] Late or poor shift quality.

[Response 1:] Since this is an unknown as to when the transmission was serviced I would recommend a power flush. Wynn's/Kendall has a machine that connects to the line to the cooler. Then they add a detergent and run the car for about 20 minutes with it off the floor and in different gears. Then they go from a recirculation mode to a change mode and add new fluid while discarding the old. This gives a full change including the torque converter. It will cost from $60 to $95 but I think it is well worth it about every 100000 miles with normal change in between. I think both my ZF and AW worked better and smoother afterwards. Call around and you should be able to find some shop that does a power flush.

[Response 2:] How dirty was the fluid was when the transmission was finally serviced? Your transmission has no bands, just clutches. When pressures are right for a shift, fluid pressure is directed to the clutch(es) that is/are to lock up. If there is a lot of clearance due to wear in the clutch packs, you usually get a delayed and hard shift. If the valve body has a problem, it could cause reduced pressure to go to the clutch pack, causing a slip as it shifts. The most common problem is governor pressure loss due to a worn output shaft bearing. Even after the output shaft bushing is replaced, the problem could still exist because while the bushing was bad, excessive wear to the transmission case where the shaft goes through, is common. A pressure test will in most cases will pinpoint the problem. This is reason # 71 for servicing the transmission at normal intervals. Every 20,000 miles is recommended. It's pressure test time.

Intermittent Shift Failure: Clogged Filter
[Inquiry:] After starting, everything goes well, the transmission shifts, but in a short while, suddenly, the transmission becomes disconnected, losing traction; moving, I accelerate and the motor increases revolutions but the car behaves as though it were in neutral. I must stop the motor, wait a moment and repeat the operation. While the problem is occurring, if I accelerate in neutral I hear a slight buzzing noise of gears even though the transmission has not engaged. The oil is new. I changed the kickdown cable.

[Response: Abe Crombie] The things you list sound like a stopped up filter inside transmission pan. Did the pan get removed and the filter inspected? The filter is a fine metal mesh strainer and can be cleaned in most cases. I didn't read your previous post of a month ago so I do not know how this started but using shop clothes to wipe off things inside transmission or to wipe the pan when it is off, can introduce lint that the transmission filter will catch when it is running. The debris on filter then starves the transmission pump for oil. The transmission pump will whine when operating with excessive vacuum on its inlet due to a plugged filter. When you stop and shut down engine, the lint falls off the filter and it will work again for a period of time until the lint is sucked up onto filter once again.

AW-70/71 Transmission Life? [Inquiry:] Any thoughts out there on the life expectancy of an AW70 tranny. I've got a 745 with 145K and it seems strong. I flush the fluid every summer. I know some think this is not good, but it seems to work. Are the AW70's rebuildable or do you just replace them?

[Response 1:] I had a minor problem with this tranny (worn check valve in the valve body, which caused it to shift hard between 1st and 2nd gear). When it was fixed, I also asked about the tranny in general, and I was told that these units usually require a rebuild at about 350 000 kilometers, or more than 200 000 miles. And only the clutch and brake packs need to be replaced, usually all the bearings are still OK.

[Response 2:] They can go 250 K. They can be rebuilt, that box is shared with several Toyota rear drive 4 cyl models in the early to late 80's.


Stripped Trans Drain Plug. [Inquiry:] Did a routine fluid change. Detected a slow leak from the plug area a few days later. Removed plug. Threads were stripped. Purchased new plug. Unable to get a tight fit since threads in pan probably also be damaged. No leakage yet, but I fear that plug may eventually loosen, I'll lose fluid and destroy the tranny. (so much for preventative maintenance.) Replacing the fluid pan seems to be the obvious solution. I would appreciate any suggestions on a good source for a pan, or alternative solutions to the problem

[Response: Simon Eng] No need to replace the pan. There is available a kit specially designed for this purpose. My mechanic has several sets and he let me borrowed one of the sets. First check what size is the plug. Let say it is 12 mm by 1.5 mm. The kit for this size has a drill bit and a tap with 14 mm by 1.5 mm. You drill the drain hole with this drill bit, then thread the hole with the tap. There is an insert that has 14 mm by 1.5 mm on the outside and 12 mm by 1.5 on the inside. Screw this insert intp the hole and use the supplied expander to expand the insert and to position it on the threaded hole. Now the insert is firmly anchored. If the old drain plug is still in good shape, reuse it; otherwise get a new plug.

[Response 2: Kane] Naturally, in upsizing the plug, you'll need to tap new threads for the hole too. Drill the hole smooth, then tap - you don't want the new threads crossing the old ones. You may also try chasing the existing hole with the exact tap size and thread count as the current plug. Sometimes this is all that's necessary to clean the remnants of the old plug and whatever else is stuck in the threads. This assuming that you do have a tap and die set. Otherwise, plucking a pan from the junkyard may be the best bet.

Kick-Down Cable Adjustment.
Function of Kickdown Cable. [Discussion from Abe Crombie] The kickdown cable is used to regulate a pressure in the transmission valve body. This is called throttle pressure. The throttle pressure is effectively a pressure that tells shift valves in transmission how hard you are pushing the throttle and these shift valves now have a contest to see if governor pressure or throttle pressure is going to win. This pressure is also used to apply the clutches/brakes that engage a gear and the higher pressure goes along with higher engine power at higher throttle. Firmer shifts are a result of higher throttle pressure. If throttle pressure wins the contest the trans remains in lower gear, if governor pressure wins the trans upshifts. Governor pressure is directly related to driveshaft, and thus road speed. If you tighten cable you increase throttle pressure and the whole shift point/road speed map goes higher. If you loosen cable the shift point map moves lower. The trans throttle cable (kickdown cable) also depresses a valve if you (or the throttle spool) pull the cable all the way out past that hard spot which is a detent to make you aware of the actual kickdown feature. The kickdown valve increases the throttle pressure drastically above the linear rate that you get from the rest of the throttle pedal travel range and makes the gearbox goes to lowest possible gear allowed at the road speed you are at when you activate it.

Adjustment of Cable. (Edit: L300: see other thread in the TRL)
No More Adjustment Length Left? [Inquiry] At the maximum extension of my kickdown cable, the car's not shifting as soon as it should. What can I do, now that I've run out of adjustment length?

[Response: Justin] Check to see if the cable sheath has come out of the crimped metal part at the end. On my car, the sheath pulled out of the metal ferrule at the end of the cable. This had the effect of shortening the kickdown cable by about 2 inches and the car would not shift correctly no matter how far I adjusted it. While you can try re-crimping it, the solution is likely to be a new cable.

Failure Modes of Kickdown Cable. [Chris Mooney] The kickdown cable can fail due to corrosion or a break in the sheath at either end (usually due to leaning on it while working on the engine from above). Dirt, dust, grime, sludge, wearing through and fraying, all take their toll and cause extra resistance. The cable is retracted by a fairly weak spring to prevent excessive resistance at the accelerator pedal - the downside is that a bit of dirt or a cable housing that's worn through and collapsing on itself will keep the cable from retracting smoothly. Replacing it is the only sure fix. But try unhooking it, spray with PBlaster, and then pouring some ATF oil down the cable into the cable housing, while you work it back and forth. It'll help a bit. Add this to your regular lubrication routine to keep things loose.

[Gary Horneck] I took the cable end off the throttle linkage and taped a little foil collar/funnel on the end. This way I was able to hold the cable upright and fill the funnel with tranny fluid. I filled the little funnel several times over a 2 hour period. All that fluid went down the sheath and has freed up the cable. [Bruce Young] I was able to free up a stuck cable by patiently working at it with pliers till some back and forth movement was possible. At that point I took the cable and sheath out of the pulley and adjuster bracket and began to apply ATF to the exposed cable, so it ran down and seeped into the sheath. Periodically the ATF drip was interrupted to repeat the range-of-motion exercise with pliers, and eventually (a few hours) the cable was totally free to retract on its own and could be adjusted.

Kick-Down Cable Replacement.

Diagnosis. If either end of the cable is cracked, the ferrule is loose, the metal strands under the plastic sheath cover have pulled loose from the ferrule, or the cable is binding in the sheath, then it needs replacing.

Kickdown Cable

Repair Procedure. [Tips from various and Nelson Torres] Parts are about $100 - $75 for the kickdown cable, $25 for tranny pan gasket and filter. It's about an 1-1/2 hour job, very messy though as you must drop the tranny pan. You kind of need an assistant to help with the cable, and a long pair of narrow vise-grip pliers. Basically :

Drain the transmission of fluid.
Unbolt the dipstick/filler tube from the transmission sump (requires 24mm wrench and 30mm counterhold wrench; may be very difficult and require a giant pipe wrench). More fluid will run out. Placing a box with a plastic liner and filled with kitty litter under the tranny will minimize the mess.
Unbolt and remove transmission pan (10mm bolts). More fluid will run out.
Unbolt and remove the transmission filter. More fluid will run out. You now have access to the cable and tranny innards.
Have somebody fully extend the cable, this will rotate the internal valving fully. Clamp onto the rotating valve (where the cable attaches) with the narrow vise grips immobilizing the valving (it is spring loaded). With a second set of narrow pliers remove the cable end from its recess in the valve actuator. [Tip from Ian Billerwell] I recently replaced cable on my 89 745 with AW72L and found a handy tool to rotate the pulley. A bit of coathanger wire 6 to 8"long with 90 deg. bend only 1/4". In my pulley there is hole in the side near where the cable locates, I found it a cinch to rotate pulley. [Tip from Bean] I tried needle nose pliers to squeeze two of the locking tabs together but to no avail. Instead I put a medium sized screwdriver in the middle of the plug (from below) and whacked it with a hammer. This released the plug with no effort at all. [Tips from Nelson Torres] When you remove the tranny pan you will see the cable and cam.Now pull the cable with needle nose pliers to form a loop.This step very important because with the cable in a loop you can hold the cam in the right position and then wedge a screwdriver in there to hold it in place. I was then able to remove the cable by feeding the cable into the cam. It finally unwound enough that I could grab it with the pliers and finish the job.It helps to have a long thin screwdriver and an index finger.You try to rotate the cam with your finger then wedge the screwdriver,then rotate the cam, then the screwdriver until you get the cam where you can hook up the new cable.
Remove the cable & sheath - friction fit in transmission, bolt-on at throttle body.
Re-assembly is reverse of disassembly. Careful not to remove the vise grips until the new cable sheath is seated in the tranny and the cable end is attached to valving
You can use thin sewing thread to hold the pan gasket in place: just tie it in 4 or 5 places to keep it from moving around.
[More Tips from Don Foster] Replacing the cable is straightforward. If you have the pan already off, swapping in a new cable should take only a few minutes. Look in where the cable attaches, and you'll see a cam-like or pulley-like gizmo around which the cable wraps. You can (carefully) turn this with a sharp tool or screwdriver (it's spring loaded.) You'll be rotating it against it's return spring, and as I recall it's a little tricky. Once rotated to the fully extended full throttle position, stick a screwdriver in to wedge it and you should be able to pull the cable end free of its hole. The old cable will disengage -- it has a round thingy at the end fitting into a recess.

The tranny end of the cable housing friction-fits into the tranny housing. I'd clean and blow-dry the outside area before removing the old cable. As I recall, you can pop if out with a screwdriver -- and pop the new one in similarly. I used a touch of synthetic grease on the O-ring-like seal.

Once installed, you install the upper end and adjust it so it just slackens when the throttle's at idle. Also, you should be able to hear the tranny valve clunk slightly when it slams back to idle. Install the small crimp around the cable core about 1/8" upstream of the orange rubber gasket. This crimp is sorta important -- it prevents excess cable from entering the tranny and keeps the cable in the pulley groove.

Park-Reverse Lockout Button Repair. [Inquiry] The other day on my 1990 740 GL w/auto trans, the little thumb button / reverse lockout, whatever, popped and popped up.It looks like some kind of retaining ring or clip used to locate the rod. It can now be completely removed and it is a bit stiffer to shift. I've been leaving it in neutral and using the hand brake to park and wonder if it is a terribly involved job to get down into the console to fix it.

[Response: John B] The thumb button can be replaced easily...get a new one and pop it on. Make sure you get it right front to can be installed backwards and feels funny. [Nik Abdullah] The button base that clicks onto the top of the shifter shaft in my car had a crack. There is a spring underneath the button: don't lose that. A new button can be had from the dealer and assembly is the reverse as they say. You need to push hard down on the button so that it'll engage a groove inside it's base. If not the button won't hold and likely to pop out again. [JohnB] If the rod itself has come up, you're in a little bit of a problem. I went through a fix on our 87 760T and the key is the spring steel roll ring that is used to hold the rod to the bracket down in the guts of the shift selector. A nail won't work...bends and the rod pops out. We tried several solutions and finally ended up replacing the entire shifter assembly for about $250 in parts, including club discount. Good thing, too, because the wire for the OD was dissolving and surprised the heck out of me it wasn't grounding and causing the OD to shift out randomly. The new shift selector feels better than new, BTW. Easy to remove the entire shifter assembly, but make sure you either mark the adjustments on the shifter rod to the trans and the stay rod, or be prepared to readjust the linkage.

Seal Leakage in AW70L Transmission. [Inquiry:] Oil is leaking from my AW70L transmission at the shift linkage shaft on the right side of the tranny housing. Does anybody know how it is to replace the seal(s)l ?

[Response:] That shaft goes through the tranny from one side to the other, with a seal on each side. On my '83, the seal had simply popped out of the transmission housing, and only had to be gentle pushed back in. The bad news is that -- at least in my experience -- access to the seal is restricted by the exhaust pipe. Dropping the pipe first made it much easier. One thing I'd advise is to first clean up that area of the transmission, particularly if it's been leaking for awhile. A lot of dirt and grime will accumulate -- and you want the area as clean as possible before installing a new seal. I washed it down with parts cleaner, hit it with compressed air, and let it dry.

AW-70/71 Hard Shifts.

Symptoms. The AW71 in my '86 740 used to shift very hard from 1st to 2nd gear. This shift is the first shift and it usually happens at about 20 km/h (depends on how hard you accelerate). It felt almost like getting rear-ended. [Editor] Hard 2-3 shifts are also symptomatic.

Try the Easy Things First. [David Hunter] A flush may cure the shift problem. On my 88 740 at around 240K I encountered delayed shifting from 1st to 2nd and 2nd to 3rd. Also had OD problems. After checking the common causes such as kickdown cable, OD relay and solonoid I elected to do a flush with Mobil 1 synthetic. The results were immediate and dramatic: all problems went away. In addition, check the kick down cable adjustment regarding those hard shifts. You may be pleasantly surprised.

Worn Valve Ball. [Toni Arte] The real cause for this problem is a worn valve ball in the transmission valve body. This ball is the 15C in the picture. This is a picture of the lower valve body. A replacement valve ball is available, you can order it from your local Volvo dealer. The part number is 1377746-1 (small blue valve ball). [Tip from Herman] You may need gasket kit p/n 271292. Before you do the job, buy the OEM manual: the manual number is TP 31642/1. The manual is for AW70/70L,AW71/71L, and AW72L. The L means lockup, check the tag on the tranny before you buy your gasket kit. For detailed instructions, see Brad Wightman's excellent illustrated writeup.

AW-70/1 Valve Body and Valve Balls

In my case the 5.5 mm valve ball was worn to about 2 mm size. Note that the valve body can be accessed through the oil pan, so it's not necessary to drop the transmission. A competent transmission shop should be able to change this ball. In my case the cost was about $100, this includes two hours of labour, new gaskets and fluid.

[More from Herman] Great care needs to be taken upon disassembly however it's an easy job with some potential of going very wrong. I tried the wrong way first. I disassembled enthusiastically and lost one ball of about 15, dropped a retaining pin and then wasted 2 hours scratching my head and agonising about the lost ball. A friend had a dead AW71 and let me take it apart for reference. This time I followed the manual and compared the two valve bodies. The job was dead simple once I went about it the right way. GET THE MANUAL and follow the steps that get you to opening the valve body up. The manual says nothing about the balls so you need to locate them and note ON PAPER where they go. There are a lot of balls and things that can go flying and falling into your parts cleaner. Following the steps in the manual however, takes away that risk. As in the photo on that page, my ball was worn to half the size of the new one and was blown out from its seat and had gone somewhere else. I think I replaced about 5 maybe 6 quarts of fluid (I use only AMSOIL). Make sure you have a lot of good quality paper towel (cloth fibre won't break down should it get into the gubbins) for the job and a large clean well-lit bench surface.

[Tip from Gary De Francesco] Rough 1 - 2 shifts are a possible sign of a worn rubber ball in the valve body that regulates how fast the various clutches and brakes are applied. As the ball wears, the fluid flow rates in some of these regulating passages can increase which will cause the various hydraulic actuators to engage faster. This will feel like a sudden and rough engagement. On the one hand, with fast engagement, there is little chance for the clutches and brakes to slip. This means less wear, and hence a longer lasting tranny. On the other hand, these fast engagements result in a bit of jarring to the occupants of the car. The solution is to have the valve body serviced. This can usually be done without removing the tranny. So you have to decide. Can you live with a little jarring, or do you want to spend some money and see if it can be smoothed out.

Overdrive Relay and Function:

Overdrive Operation. [Roger Scott] The overdrive electrical circuit works works like this -- the A-70/1 automatic transmission is a 4-speed transmission, but, unless the overdrive solenoid is energized, it is by default a 3-speed automatic transmission. When you hit the overdrive button what really happens is you de-energize the solenoid, disabling 4th gear; you get a downshift to 3rd gear and the up-arrow light on the instrument panel.

Basic Diagnostics. [Roger Scott]

Check fuse 12: intact, ends are clean and it fits tightly.
Check for fraying or severing of the wires to the solenoid - under the car on the left side of the transmission. Pay particular attention to the metal retaining clamp near the front end of the shift lever where the wires pass through.
Make sure the wires to the switch on the shifter head are in good order. You can remove the relay and test for continuity between terminals 1 (15 on the relay) and 4 (86 on the relay) which are the switch wire terminals.
You can test the relay and solenoid by jumpering with a spade-terminal jumper wire. Pull the relay, jumper between terminals 1 (15 on the relay, or +12V) and 3 (87 on the relay, or the solenoid). This bypasses the relay and energizes the solenoid directly. Or run +12V directly to the solenoid through a long jumper wire from the battery.
[Don Foster] All this having been noted, 90%+ of overdrive failures result from relay solder cracks. See below for instructions for relay repair.
Relay Problems and Repair:
[See Relay Locations for a detailed picture of relay location and removal instructions.] [Symptom:] I have a friend with a '90 740 automaticOverdrive Relay and he is having intermittent OD problems that seem to be weather related. It won't go into OD when the weather is cold. Is the relay on the relay tray? If so, which one is it?

[Diagnosis:] Yes it does sound like an OD relay. If I remember correctly on 740 it is by the Ashtray/FuseBox. It is pretty common component failure on the bricks. It will be a white Hella relay. Pretty simple to change. The relay is about $40-43 through Mail order from dealership. In my case I was sure it was the wiring, switch or solenoid, as the relay looked just fine. But as soon as I replaced the relay, all problems disappeared. The relay is about $40 from the dealer, or you can probably find it cheaper from a second appears to be a standard Hella relay.

[Response 2: Michael Daley] I have just repaired the o/drive relay and rather than pay the UK£40 that the volvo dealer wanted for a new one, I took the top off the relay - all that was wrong with it was a cracked solder on the circuit board. Fixed with a soldering iron in 5 minutes, saving myself £40!!

[David Brewster] Wave solder joints can crack and cause relay failure, as shown in the photo. These can be easily repaired with a soldering iron. For a more detailed discussion of relay repair, see Relay Repair vs. Replacement.

[Another OD Symptom:] I have a '93 940T with an AW71L transmission (or so I've been told...) Today I was driving on the highway and it momentarily dropped out of overdrive into 3rd, at the time I was at minimal throttle. I dismissed that as a hiccup. An hour later (after making a couple of stops)I began driving and I noticed that the tranny would not go into OD, 3rd gear was the max. All of the other shifts are perfect. I tried pressing the OD cancel button a few times, and I checked the related fuses - no changes. Am I looking at replacing the overdrive solenoid on the tranny? If so, can anyone give me a part# and/or approx. price? [Response: Abe Crombie] It is an AW71 no L. The turbos didn't get the locking torque converter feature. The trouble sounds like the typical OD relay failure. The relay is behind the ashtray in the fuse/relay panel. I believe it is white on that car and square in profile. The fuel system relay is the one to the left that is rectangular.

Shifter Overdrive Switch:
[Inquiry] My overdrive will not lock out and the relay is fine. [Response: Editor] The switch on the shifter is likely bad. To replace it, see the link above.


If your overdrive engages late or not before the transmission warms up, first try replacing the relay and flushing the fluid. If this does not solve the problem, a new solenoid often will.

AW 70/71 Overdrive Problems: Wiring to Solenoid, Solenoid.

Electrical & Wiring Problems:

[Rob Bareiss] The overdrive solenoid should click on and off with a very noticeable click. You need to be sure you're getting 12 volts at the solenoid. If you haven't got 12 V, you need to check the wires at the OD relay socket in the fuse box and thence to the solenoid itself. My '88 has had numerous problems with the electrical connections at the OD relay on the fuseblock, so I would be checking there first.

Wiring Connector: [Eric C] The plastic wiring connector which connects to the overdrive solenoid (attached underneath the car at the rear of the transmission) can come loose. In my case, it snapped in place yet had 2mm of play and was not snug. I cleaned out the connector with contact cleaner, allowed it to dry, then used heat shrink tubing to keep the connector in the snug position after snapping in closed. It worked; no more overdrive problems.

[Another Tip] Sometimes there is corrosion in the joint between the connector and the may look fine and even will light a test lamp but will not allow enough amps across it to fire the solenoid. Take it apart, clean and deoxidize, then reassemble with silicone grease.

Wiring. [C. McGrew/Scott] Check the wiring under the car from the shifter to the solenoid. It tends to deteriorate near the shifter and at the connector leading to the solenoid itself. Jiggle this to find internal wiring breaks. If you install a new solenoid, then also install more chafe guards (3 inch pieces of hose) all along the wire. Make sure that the white wire that comes down from the shifter does not ground out on the car due to worn insulation. [James Souther] A couple of my solenoids had the white wire break from vibration right before the soldered tab under the rubber potting, a bit of solder and RTV for potting and the solenoids were returned to service costing only the two new o-rings.

Solenoid Operation/Diagnosis:

[Rob Bareiss/Scott] The solenoid is normally closed, cutting off the fluid flow necessary for 4th gear or "overdrive". When energized with the overdrive arrow light "off" the solenoid opens up and allows the trans to shift into 4th. The solenoid must pass fluid through when energized, or it's either not working or plugged up with dirt. Just because it "clicks" does not mean it is passing any fluid. The first test is to park in a quiet place, open the drivers door and switch the OD on and off while listening for a click under the car. If you don't hear it then it is bad. If you do hear a click that does not necessarily mean it is good: it could be dirty and not passing fluid.

[Steve Sakiyama] There have been a few posts on autotrans overdrive Overdrive Solenoidproblems (won't shift into 4th) when the brick is cold. The problem disappears when the car warms up. I have an AW71. When cold it would not go into 4th (OD) until the car had been driven for 10 minutes. This would happen more and more frequently until it was a regular pattern. I checked/dealt with fluids, OD relay, wiring, and downshift cable but the ultimate problem was the overdrive solenoid which sits on the side of the tranny. Although I had bench tested it and it seemed fine,an experienced tranny tech said it just doesn't sound and feel right. Replaced it with a used one (with the two inner o-rings), and the brick is fine. [DougC] According to Bentley, with the solenoid in your hand and disconnected, you should cover the oil passages between the o-rings, and blow through the hole on the end of the solenoid. The valve should be tight, and no air should pass through. With it energized with 12 volts, you not be able to blow air through with the same holes uncovered. It says also to check for blocked passages and damaged o-rings.

Solenoid Removal/Replacement:Access to OD Solenoid Bolt with 12MM Bent Wrench

Tools. What kind of special wrench do I need to get 2 bolts out of solenoid to remove it? Doesn't appear to be much room for tools or hands.

[Ryan Ridgely/R Haire/SML] Wear eye protection. For ease of removal, GearWrench brand ratcheting box wrenches with the flexible head work well and do not force you to drop the transmission. Support the transmission with a jack and remove the cross member (although one user did the job whilst lying on the right side of the car and reaching underneath). Then lower the trans about an inch to give you enough room to CLEAN the area around the solenoid until it is spotless before ever attempting to remove it. Do NOT lower it so much you crush the distributor cap against the firewall. To remove the solenoid, you need a stubby angled 12 mm wrench. The rear bolt is the more difficult of the two. It is snug up in there and you do not have much range of motion. A "gear wrench" is ideal to turn the bolt. Be prepared for a lot of oil to run out: about a quart/liter. [Tip] I have used a short (approx. 6") angled/bent 12mm open end wrench that I heated and bent myself. Access is difficult: you may have to remove the linkage and drop the transmission support (placing a jack and large wood plate beneath the pan to support the tranny). [Tip] Bend a flex socket handle to fit and use a 12mm socket on the end to remove the solenoid bolts. [Tip] Use a smaller 1/4 inch drive socket set to remove it. Note that there are two o-rings to pull out.

Dirt. [Rob Bareiss] Replacing the solenoid requires that NO dirt get in that transmission. Lots of brake cleaner, Gunk, power washing, and probably use of a toothbrush and more brake cleaner will get the area acceptable. You might follow up with compressed air delivered by a J-tube to remove dirt and little rocks lodged up behind the solenoid. Haynes suggests the use of a sheet of cardboard over the trans, up against the tunnel to keep grit from falling in from above. Dirt and transmissions disagree.

Don't get any dirt into the solenoid when you replace it. This is a filthy area and it's easy to do this. The plumbing internal to the solenoid unit, which has a right angle turn at the valve seat, can plug up. You may have to pull the OD solenoid, rig it up to the battery to turn it on and blow it out with WD40, carb cleaner, compressed air, or any similar pressure source, preferably with a little straw to get down into the holes.

[Editor] Two users reported that removing the solenoid and turning the engine over seemed to pump enough oil through the recess to clean it out and enable operation. This is messy, though. [SML] Before re-installing the solenoid, clear the oil passages in the transmission by slipping a tray under the tranny, starting the car and quickly shifting the auto trans gear lever from P through R,N,D,2,1,P then quickly off. About a 5 second process. A flood of trans oil will squirt out from the car hopefully clearing any blockages.

[C. McGrew] My transmission was leaking fluid and was oil soaked from an engine rear main seal leak. The solenoid rubber cap becomes brittle and then it's good bye. Be sure to buy the two o-rings for the solenoid. Coat o-rings with plumbers or silcone grease for sealing and ease of install. It's not that bad getting your fingers in the correct position to replace the two bolts. Re-torque to 7-12 ft-lbs to tighten the solenoid bolts.

Rusted Bolts. [James Souther] If the solenoid mounting bolts are rusted, the lockwasher is only rusted to the solenoid flange and the bolt head, not in the threads as the case is aluminum so PB Blaster or Kroil will help but not solve (no pun intended). If you use penetrants, use starting fluid or brake cleaner to clean off around the solenoid base before you start as both dirt and penetrants are not good for the inside of the transmission. Second, free the solenoid wire cable and the brackets before trying to loosen the bolts. This lets you get better access if you flop that out of the way. If needed you can take the nut off the shift shaft input and move it away, however, you need to hold the lever so you do not stress against the transmission valve assembly inside. The lever goes on with a rectangular notch. Third, attack the bolts which set very close to the solenoid body and come out by hand after a turn or two. IMHE the original bolts seem way overtight due to being threadlocked so what works is a quarter inch 6 pt socket with extensions to get down on top of the bolts or a thin box end wrench and lots of force. The posture is pulling the car and the wrench or ratchet together so you can put enough force on it. In a dozen or so times, the bolts mostly "crack" loose. When you get it out, check to make sure the old o-rings are not stuck on the transmission flat. Finally, take heart, installation is a breeze compared to taking it out.

Eliminating the Overdrive Disabling Function at the Relay. [Bill Foster] If you never ever use the overdrive switch to disable the OD, you may want it permanently enabled. To bypass it, use a short jumper with 2 1/4 inch male terminals inserted in the switched hot terminal to the solenoid terminal of the overdrive relay. The wiring diagram is often on the relay.

Eliminating the Solenoid and the Manual Downshift System: Solenoid Modification for OD Troubles

You can also pull the solenoid entirely, replacing it with a metal plate, and remove the ability to use the button to manually shift down into third. See the link below for IPD's solution to solenoid troubles.

[E. J. Ohler] Forget about a new $150 solenoid and $50 relay: take the solenoid out, cut the wire off and cap the end, grind a small groove between the center hole and aft hole in the solenoid face, and reinstall to allow fluid to move and disable the solenoid as a solution to solenoid troubles. Use a Dremel 1/8 inch grinding tool (the metal is hard so you will use two) or a diamond bit. Clean the matching holes in the tranny using drill bits the same diameter, but don't drop them into the transmission. Replace the outer O-ring but not the inner where the groove passes through. From start to finish this is a 3 hour job that saves you a lot of headaches. You don't need the manual 4-3 downshift in most instances anyway.

Solenoid with Ground 1/8 Inch Groove

Solenoid Quality Reports:

[Tip from Dan Marino] My recently-installed Scantech OD solenoid failed. I discovered that the rubber top cap (the part where the electrical wire attaches to the solenoid) had totally split away from the metal solenoid valve parts. Basically, the top blew off of the thing. The result, massive transmission fluid leakage. My conclusion is that this ScanTech overdrive solenoid suffers from poor quality construction, cheap-o materials, and design flaws. The next day I was able to pull an original Volvo overdrive solenoid from a junker for a cost of $5.25. A quick comparison showed the Volvo part to be of superior design, more metal, and less plastic/rubber.

IPD's Overdrive Blockoff PlateSolenoid and Overdrive Removal. [Ken Crossner] For you folks who wish their automatics were simply completely automatic without any tendancy to fail and lose 4th (especially during this gas crisis time), IPD came up with a solution! They're selling a Solenoid Bypass Plate (product code MD7071K - $39.95.) Remove the solenoid, cover the hole with this plate, and you're left with a 4-speed automatic transmission -- the 4th (OD) gear works normally, and you can dispense completely with all the other components (relay, shifter switch, wiring, etc.). Nothing left to fail, ever! You merely lose the ability to manually downshift into third gear, which you probably never used much anyway. You can remove the overdrive relay to turn off the lamp permanently and remove the power to the +12V lead to the solenoid.

[John Orrell] there is a almost free way of doing this. Remove the stock solenoid, remove the inner O-ring and machine/grind a groove in the face of the solenoid between the two small holes. Replace the outer O-ring (not exactly free, but cheaper than 39.95) and reinstall the solenoid.

AW7X Diagnostic Notes

Governor Pressure Test. [Tip from Abe Crombie] The governor is best checked with a gauge attached to the tap point on driver's side of trans on case just forward of tailhousing joint. This plug is a 8mm X 1.0 bolt. The gauge fitting used is an o ring sealed hollow bolt with a cross-drilled bolt that goes through fitting in hose from the Volvo special tool gauge. You may be able to fashion something like this. The gauge needs to be able to read 60 -70 psi at least. The pressure should correspond more or less to the road speed once you get to 10 mph or above. Approx 1 psi per each mph.

Transmission Removal:

Transmission Removal. [John Orrell] Don't consider trying to remove your transmission with either a dedicated transmission jack or a $40 transmission adapter for your floor jack from Harbor Freight or the like. Here are the steps to remove your transmission:

Set parking brake and disconnect battery negative/earth
Release kickdown cable at throttle pulley and remove dipstick
Use floor jack under the front suspension cross member... in the center.
Jack it up to maximum lift range of the jack and put quality jack stands under the front factory jacking points. Don't use cheap or undersized stands.
Let it down on the jack stands.
Put floor jack under the center of the rear differential.
Jack up the rear end as far as the jack allows, make SURE that the car does not rock the front jack stands forwards or backwards!
Put another set of jack stands under the rear factory jack points and let the jack down.
Drain oil from transmission
Disconnect oil cooler lines from radiator - use a counter hold wrench at the radiator to prevent damage. Also disconnect lines at transmission. You will bathe in oil. Remove line holder at bellhousing (l -10mm bolt). Remove lines from engine bellhousing.
Loosen nut holding filler tube - dipstick holder from oil pan. Once pan is drained, put plug backs in and block holes vacated by lines and filler tube.
Disconnect shift levers from transmission. Two E clips.
Disconnect driveline at back of transmission and front of differential.
Support transmission with a transmission jack, safely secured to the tranny.
Remove center support bracket. Total of 6 bolts. You will need the plate for mounting the new drive shafts.
Remove exhaust pipe support near the back of the transmission. Not on all cars.
Remove nuts from exhaust pipe to manifold (3).
Remove bolts holding exhaust pipe to bellhousing.
Free exhaust pipe from exhaust manifold.
Remove aluminum engine support bracket under the engine. This binds engine to bellhousing.
Remove 4 bolts holding torque converter to flexplate. You will need to counterhold the flexplate.
Loosen and remove starter bolts.
Remove distributor cap and rotor. You don't want to crush it against the firewall. Alternatively, support the engine using a hook at the rear connected to an engine lift.
Remove transmission crossmember. Two bolts on each side and one nut holding transmission to the crossmember. Remove the bolt from the transmission - need to tap with a hammer once the crossmember is removed.
Remove all bellhousing bolts. The top bolts can be reached from above using a 19mm wrench.
Carefully pull transmission back until clear of bellhousing and lower. You will probably take another transmission oil bath, especially if the torque converter decides to come out. Best to cross wire in the torque converter to prevent it from slipping out: wire from ear to ear of bellhousing portion on transmission. Remove transmission from under the car.
Remove flex plate - loosen bolts in a cross pattern. For a counterhold to secure the flywheel, install a very strong C clamp through the starter hole in the block, squeezing on the front and back of the flywheel.
Mark or know the position of the flexplate on the crankshaft, as it prevents timing problems later.
Installation. This is generally the reverse, but position the torque converter and orient the flex plate correctly on reinstallation. Remove and install new rear main engine seal:see instructions for this as well as other items skipped in these instructions. Torques on reinstallation include:

Fluid dipstick tube to pan nut: 90 Nm (66 ft-lb)
Torque converter to carrier plate bolts: 50 Nm (36 ft-lb), torqued alternately in a cross pattern
Torque converter housing bolts to engine: M10 are 42.5 Nm (32 ft-lb); M12 are 72.5 Nm (52 ft-lb)
Center support: 26 Nm (20 ft-lb) tightened alternately in steps of 7 Nm (5 ft-lb)
Oil pan bolts to transmission body: 5 Nm (3.5 ft-lb)
Coupling flange on output shaft: 45 Nm (34 ft-lb) using Loctite
Oil cooler connections on side of transmission: 25 Nm (18 ft-lb)
Bellhousing Bolt Removal. See the discussion in the Engine: Mechanical section.

Torque Converter Alignment on Transmission Reinstallation. [Inquiry] Why is the shaft on the torque converter that goes into the transmission slotted on both sides of the end of the shaft?

[Response: Chris Herbst] Those slots have to be aligned with the oil pump on the inside (they fit over the extrusions or dogs inside the trans). If you don't line them up you'll chew up the torque converter and the drive gear inside the transmission, which basically means getting another transmission. In addition, your oil pump will not engage. In other words, alignment on reinstallation is very important. See also the notes on alignment related to engine rear seal installation.

[Jerry Andersch] When the torque converter is properly seated it should sit 1/2" below the bell housing flange. If it's flush with it, it's not seated all the way. With the tranny slightly angled up (bell housing higher than the tail)work the TC back and forth until it seats, sliding down 1/2" of so below the bell housing flange. When installing the tranny make sure the BH is slightly higher as you move the box into place, so the TC does not slide forward and out of place. Bolting the autobox into place with the TC not properly seated can damage the transmission.

Rebuild or Replace Information:

The transmission in my Volvo is fading and needs to be rebuilt. What should I do? [Rob Bareiss] Not worth rebuilding. Good used ones are SO CHEAP that there's no reason to pay $900 for a rebuild, vs. $250 for a junkyard trans. The downtime is a lot less too- pull yours and chuck it, bolt in the new used one, 4 hours you're done. Compared to 3 days on the bench waiting for the rebuild. [Rhys] The Aisin Warner 70 is an excellent trans, very long lived. A good used one is always an easier way to go. The rebuild kit for soft parts is only about $150.00, but if you need any hard parts, the cost goes up dramatically. And rebuilding one is a challenge the first time. You'll need the factory manual, which covers the BW55-AW70 trans. Very good publication, but pricey.

Transmission Interchange? [Jay Simkin] In the 940s and most post-1989 740s, the trannies used were made by Aisin-Warner. These units are very robust. Non-turbo cars usually had an AW70L or AW71L (L = locking torque converter) while turbo-equipped cars came with the AW71 unit (non-locking torque converter). Look for a used AW70, AW71 or 71L (depending of whether the car has a turbo or non-turbo engine). These AW units can come from a 740 or a 940. The 24-valve (6 cylinder) 960 series cars were equipped with the AW30-43 unit. The AW30-43 is computer-controlled, and does not interchange with an AW70 or AW71 unit.

Replacement Tips. [Jerry Andersch/Others] See the FAQ section on rear engine seal replacement for more information on removing and replacing the transmission.

Used Transmissions. [Marlin Mangels] When you buy a used transmission to replace your failed unit, get one with pink (not brown) fluid to make sure you are not acquiring a soon-to-fail unit. Buy one that comes with its torque converter. Torque converters vary in application and matching the TC with the tranny may be difficult if you don't have the original. Used transmissions may be sourced from junkyards anywhere. Pay attention to model and lockup function on the identification tag.

Pulling the Tranny. Best technique is to use a rented transmission jack. In my experience, after trying to get the fill tube off without success I gave up and removed the tranny with the pan and tube in place. It is possible to drop and reinstall a new tranny with it still attached; just make sure you have someone guide it up while you're doing it because it will get caught. On reinstallation, once you get the tranny lined up make sure to use the rear of the tranny to push it into place; this is the only way to do this. Attempting to force it in by putting the mounting bolts in doesnt work out very well. If you have a problem getting it to line up with the engine i suggest you get a floor jack from a friend and jack the front of the engine up just a little (but not by much or you might cause damage in areas not intended.) Don't tilt the tranny too far forward or your torque converter will fall out. If you have to pull the pan off, be ready for a mess. Fluid will continue to drip for a long time. You need a large pan to catch the dripping oil. If you plan on re-using the kick-down cable, be sure to secure it as you remove the transmission. I broke mine at the plastic fitting where the cable enters the transmission.

Torque Converter. The TC will pull straight out ... or fall out if you tilt the tranny too far foward. I removed my replacement pick and pull convertor to replace the main front seal. I let the TC drain into a clean coffee can to get all the old ATF out of it. After replacing the seal and pouring some AFT into the converter it's very important to seat the TC properly on the oil pump drive ... The converter should slip onto the drive and seat below the edge of the bellhousing, not flush with it. Turn it back and forth until it slips in to place. If it's not seated properly or slips forward out of seat as you install the transmission in your Brick, the oil pump drive will not be properly engaged and things will get chewed up when you start the motor. A properly seated conveter will sit about 3/4" below (or back from) the front edge of the bell housing.

Engine Rear Seal. Now is a perfect time to renew the engine rear seal, which requires removal of the transmission.

Parts Renewal. I removed the TC and then using a seal puller removed the front main seal. Slathered a generous amount of ATF of the new seal and carefully seated it so it was not cocked. Make sure you lube all new seals. I also replaced the cross (selector) shaft seals,solenoid and cooler line o-rings, kickdown cable o-ring and kick down cable, pulled the pan and cleaned it and the pan magnet, pulled the mesh filter screen and cleaned it, and replaced the pan gasket. Replaced the rear bushing, oil seal, and gasket. I also put in new nylon shift linkage bushings and overdrive solenoid o-rings. All this is a lot easier to do when the tranny's out of the Brick ... and if done correctly will assure you not a drop of ATF will leak out of your new autobox. On reinstallation, I replaced the kickdown cable. I filled the new box with approx 8 Qts of Mobile 1 synthetic ATF and a dose of Lube Guard.

Transmission Rebuilding Instructions: Valve Body and Complete Transmission. See Brad Wightman's illustrated FAQ description of the valve body service in AW-7X series transmissions. Don't so this without the Volvo illustrated OEM manual. For complete rebuilding instructions, see Kenny's detailed and lengthy illustrated instructions in the FAQ file which has illustrations of valve body components from the OEM manual.

AW Transmission Parts and Rebuild Technical Help . [Tip from Frank] The AW (Aisin Warner .... Asia's version of Borg Warner) is the most common import tranny out there from Toyota to Isuzu. There are several good service books, better than Volvo's own technical publication. My suggestion is to call either of the two suppliers below and ask for the best novice book they have (Trans Mart will even give you the info to get it yourself if you wish, but Trans Star won't). Read the book cover to cover before touching the tranny. I'd even go so far as to suggest you get the service updates manuals from the same location. If you decide to rebuild your unit, here are the best places in the United States for a transmission kit and parts:

Trans Mart (division of ATC Distributing) phone# 800-633-3340 (they'll give you a number that is closer to you). GREAT customer service
The next best is Trans Star 800-321-8830 (they're a little higher on parts & their customer service is good.)
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